Humans as Superorganisms How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes, and Other Selfish Entities Shape Our Behavior

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The gastrointestinal tract contains and estimated 500 million neurons. The gut microbiota and the brain communicate with each other affecting neural, endocrine and immune systems.

Science is waking-up to find that gut microbes, viruses, imprinted genes, and other self-serving entities affect brain and behavior.

“We are not unitary individuals but superorganisms, built out of both human and nonhuman elements; it is their interaction that determines who we are” (Kramer & Bressan, 2015).

 

Humans as Superorganisms

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Italy Peter Kramer, Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale, Università di Padova, Via Venezia 8, 35131 Padova, Italy E-mail: peter.kramer{at}unipd.it Psychologists and psychiatrists tend to be little aware that (a) microbes in our brains and guts are capable of altering our behavior; (b) viral DNA

Superorganisms

“Psychologists and psychiatrists tend to be little aware that (a) microbes in our brains and guts are capable of altering our behavior” (Kramer & Bressan, 2015).

Reference:

Peter Kramer, & Paola Bressan. (2015). Humans as Superorganisms : How microbes, viruses, imprinted genes, and other selfish entities shape our behavior. Perspectives On Psychological Science, 10(4), 464-481. doi:10.1177/1745691615583131

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